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The Career Opportunities Article

Careers come in all kinds of shapes and sizes. Some careers demand that you are physically fit, others require large amounts of brain power, and others require great patience and kindness. Similarly careers are distinguished by general types depending on skill set, payment options, tax status, and need. Here are a number of job categories that many careers fall into.

Apprentice

Apprentices are employed on an agreement that provides additional education received on the job for a predetermined length of time. Apprentices’ employment is a training program. An apprenticeship combines on-the-job experience with off-site training and are usually found in vocational types of careers.

Commission Only

Employees working on commission receive a percentage for each sale they make. People in this category are paid on a commission only basis, which means they only receive money when they make a sell. Commission Employees often receive a bonus when they reach a goal set by the business.

Employees can also be employed on a "commission & retainer" basis. This means they receive a fixed amount with an additional commission paid if specific sales targets are achieved.

Exempt

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) requires that employers categorize jobs as either exempt or non-exempt. Non-exempt employees are covered by FLSA rules & regulations, and exempt employees are not. Exempt positions are excluded from minimum wage, overtime regulations, and other rights and protections given to non-exempt workers. Employers must pay a salary rather than an hourly wage for a position to be exempt. Typically, only executive, supervisory, professional or outside sales positions are exempt positions.

Fixed Term

Fixed term employees are employed to do a job for a mutually agreed upon length of time. Many employers hire fixed term employees to do work on a specific project, fill in for employees who may be on leave or for seasonal jobs.

Floater / On Call Employees

Floater or more commonly called On Call employees are people who only work when called in by the company. Most on call positions are available during the holiday season or for industries that experience higher than normal or unexpected customer arrivals. Floater / On Call Employees are not normally eligible for any benefits.

Full Time

Full time employment has more than one meaning. The most common definition of Full Time Employment is working a minimum of eight hours a day for five days a week. Full time employees are usually paid on either salary or by the hour and often time have additional benefits such as medical insurance and retirement plans.

Independent Contractor

Independent contractors also known as Sub Contractors are not employees. In recent debates, the difference between a contractor and an employee has been complex. However, Independent Contractors differ from employees primarily because they will generally run their own business, control the way they work, supply their own tools and be paid upon completion of a job where as the employee is paid per each day they are at the job location. Independent contractors generally are paid higher rates but do not get any company benefits.

Intern These are the two most recognized types of interns:

  • A college student or a recent graduate undergoing supervised practical training.
  • A physician who has recently graduated from medical school and is learning medical practice in a hospital under supervision, prior to beginning a residency program.

Lifetime Employment (tenure)

Lifetime employment has been a common rule in large Japanese companies beginning with the first economic successes in the 1920s. A high demand for the few available engineers forced companies to bind these employees to the company. The collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble and the following financial crisis in the 1990s weakened the tradition. In America, lifetime employment (tenure) is given to certain college professors and federal court judges primarily to protect the officeholder from external or political pressures.

Part Time

A part time job usually works less than 30 hours per week and pays less than a full time job and has fewer working hours per week. A Part Time employee does not receive the same health insurance, retirement, or other benefits full time employees receives. Most Part Time employees receive no health insurance or retirement packages at all.

Permanent Employment

The definition of Permanent Employment is considered to be a full time position with a company where the employee who is hired is expected to be an active employee with the company for a long length of time; generally more than 12 consecutive months.

Piece Work

Piece Work employees are paid based on a set amount for completing a specific task that can be counted or measured. For example, "At Home Assemblers" are paid based on the number of boxes they label.

Provisional Employment

New employees, or those who have been rehired, will normally be subject to a period of Provisional Employment which is a pre-determined schedule of time before being hired as a Permanent employee.

Retired Employees

An Employee aged 65 or over who leaves they're career but choose to work in their retirement stage.

Seasonal Employment

Seasonal Employees are employed for the season only, which is not continuous throughout the year but may recur for each season. Examples are Christmas, Halloween and Summer.

Temporary Employees

An employee who works on an "as needed" or "On Call" basis is considered a Temporary Employee. Temporary Employees are also called Temps and are not eligible for any fringe benefits unless they are employed with a Temporary Employment Agency that offers benefits to their Temporary Employees.

Traineeship

Traineeships are registered training agreements for a fixed term that provide employment based training. Traineeships often have a term of 12 months with all of the focus being on-the-job training.

Work Study Program

The work study program is a financial aid based program. Federal and state dollars are allocated to a university to fund work programs for students who are eligible.

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